雅思阅读 2021-01-31 05:30:01
摘要:关于 逻辑关系词 在阅读中的作用,100教育带大家首先来看一段文字: the discourse markers signal relationships: between different parts of thediscourse … the main reason for studying them is their usefulness in he


  the discourse markers signal relationships: between different parts of thediscourse … the main reason for studying them is their usefulness in helping thereader to work out the meaning of difficult text. They often show therelationship the writer intends between two parts of the text, so if you canunderstand one part, the discourse marker is a possible key to the other part.(Christine Nuttall, 1996. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language,Heinemann)接下来为大家介绍"探讨雅思阅读中的逻辑关系词详解"

  关于“discourse marker”,P.H.Matthews在其Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics(Oxford University Press) 一书中是这样描述的:Any of a variety of units whose function iswithin a larger discourse rather than an individual sentence or clause: e.g. butthen in But then he might be late. “discoursemarker”虽然范围更加广泛一些,但从以上文字不难看出,它包括了我们所熟悉的逻辑关系词(即文章中用于表示并列,转折,举例,因果,递进,让步,总结等逻辑关系的固定单词或词组)。也由此可见,特别重视形式逻辑和思维分析的英语行文,在词语之间和句子之间往往会借助各种逻辑关系词清楚表达思维逻辑和语意关系。因此了解和掌握逻辑关系词可以帮助我们把握文章中语意的转换和发展,理解文章重点表达的意思。

  具体到雅思阅读,逻辑关系词在解题中体现出两大功能 :




  1.剑4 / P77 / Q38

  Some corpora include a wide range of language while others are used tofocus on a particular linguistic feature.

  根据while这个表示对比或转折的逻辑关系词,可以判断它前后部分是对比或反义关系。“a wide range oflanguage”指的是语言研究的广泛的各个方面,可以预判空格处应是指具体的方面。

  2.剑1 / P20 / Q4-5

  The very first fire-lighting methods involved the creation of friction by,for example, rapidly rotating a wooden stick in a round hole.

  根据介词“by”和“for example”这个表示举例的逻辑关系词,可以预判第二个空格应是和“creation offriction”(产生摩擦)的具体动作有关的词。

  3.剑1 / P20 / Q6

  The use of percussion or persistent chipping was also widespread in Europe…





  1.剑5 / P50 / Q30-31

  题干:In Britain, moreover, scientists worried that English had neither thetechnical vocabulary nor the grammatical resources to express their ideas.

  原文:First, it lacked the necessary technical vocabulary. Second, it lackedthe grammatical resources required to represent the world … (Para.7)

  题干中出现的neither…nor…是连接两个否定概念的并列逻辑关系词。原文中对应出现了完全相同的逻辑关系,即first, it lacked …,second it lacked …(表现方式有所变化)。我们可根据这种对应的逻辑关系在原文中快速定位答案信息源。

  2.剑5 / P50 / Q33-34

  题干:Although English was then overtaken by German, it developed again in the19th century as a direct result of the industrial revolution.

  原文:In the following century much of this momentum was lost as Germanestablished itself as the leading European language of science. … However, inthe 19th century scientific English again enjoyed substantial lexical growth asthe industrial revolution created the need for new technical vocabulary.

  题干中出现的两种逻辑关系均在原文中对应出现。一是表示转折关系的although, 对应于原文中的however;二是表示因果关系的as adirect result of 对应于原文中表因果的逻辑关系词as。很显然,这对于题干信息的定位意义重大。

  3.剑5 / P70 / Q25-26

  题干:To deal with this, Stanley suggests the use of artificial floods in theshort term, and increasing the amount of water available through desalination inthe longer term.

  原文:In the immediate future, Stanley believes that one solution would be tomake artificial floods to flush out the delta waterways, in the same way thatnatural floods did before the construction of the dams. He says, however, thatin the long term an alternative process such as desalination may have to be usedto increase the amount of water available.

  题干中出现了表示递进的逻辑关系词in the short term … in the longer term…。快速查读原文,可定位于文中相同的逻辑结构in the immediate future … in the long term …。




  likewise once again/once more in (much) the same way (manner)similarly/similar to vice versa also/as well as not only … but also … both … and… neither … nor … like/just like as/just as equally namely or and


  but/yet/whereas however otherwise in contrast (to) converselythough/although nevertheless unlike in spite of despite on the contrary evenif/even though

  on the one hand …, on the other hand … instead (of) not as … as … ratherthan even so vary different from differ from



  for example/for instance/e.g. such as that is/namely/i.e.

  in other words in general/in particular a case in point is especiallyspecifically


  as a result as a consequence consequently so/therefore/thus then for thisreason hence accordingly because/because of owing to thanks to on account of

  since due to …, for as this is why


  and then as well as again another also/too in addition (to) additionallyadditional besides (that) moreover furthermore not only … but also … what’smore


  though/although while even though/even if nevertheless in spite of/despiteadmittedly

  7. 表示总结

  in a word in brief in short above all all in all on the whole in general toconclude/in conclusion to sum up/to summarize/in summary