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艺术留学培训排行武汉简述雅思阅读模拟练习:Seeking an energy holy trinity

雅思阅读 2021-01-30 12:00:01
摘要:We have found an IELTS reading simulation exercises--Seeking an energy holy trinity Seeking an energy holy trinity Jan 10th 2007 From Economist.com 1 NEELIE KROES, the European Union’s competition commissioner, did notmince her words when

  We have found an IELTS reading simulation exercises--Seeking an energy holy trinity

  Seeking an energy holy trinity

  Jan 10th 2007

  From Economist.com

  1 NEELIE KROES, the European Union’s competition commissioner, did notmince her words when reporting on Europe’s energy markets on Wednesday January10th. Europe’s energy firms have failed to invest in networks and so customersare suffering. Those “vertically integrated” energy companies such asElectricité de France (EDF) or Germany’s E.ON, widely dubbed as “nationalchampions”, are effectively behaving like local monopolies. Shy of competition,eager for artificially high prices, they are helping to block the efficientgeneration, transmission and distribution of energy on the continent.接下来为大家介绍"简述雅思阅读模拟练习:Seeking an energy holy trinity"
雅思阅读模拟练习:Seeking an energy holy trinity

  2 Energy prices vary wildly across Europe. Ms Kroes wants to see cheaperenergy, and intends to push suppliers to divest their distribution network andto get them to invest more in transportation systems so that more energy—in theform of gas, or electricity, for example—can flow easily over borders. It isremarkably hard, for example, for gas-poor Germany to import from theneighbouring, gas-rich Netherlands. Companies that dominate national marketshave, so far, had little interest in improving the interconnections which wouldmean lower prices for consumers across the continent.

  3 Ms Kroes, of course, will struggle to get her way. The EuropeanCommission, which on the same day presented its recommendation for improving EUenergy policy, also wants to see the unbundling of ownership, the legalseparation of energy suppliers and transporters, something that the integratedenergy companies and interested governments, notably in France and Germany, arebound to oppose ferociously.

  4 Complicating the matter is an argument over the security of energy supplyin Europe. Much has been made of the risk for western Europe of depending tooheavily on Russian exports of gas. Russia under Vladimir Putin is prone to usingenergy exports as a blunt tool of foreign policy, especially when trying tobully countries in its hinterland. Last year Russia interrupted gas deliveriesto Ukraine, affecting supplies in central and western Europe too. This week itblocked oil exports passing via Belarus to Europe, though that spat was soonresolved.

  5 The risk is that concerns about security of supply may be used spuriouslyby those in Europe who oppose the sort of liberalisation encouraged by Ms Kroes.The likes of E.ON and EDF may claim that only protected national champions areable to secure supply, by striking long-term deals with powerful foreignsuppliers. The Commission disagrees. Such deals are too often politicallymotivated and far from transparent. Protection has been tried for long enoughand evidently has not worked for the internal market, nor have these companiessecured the best deals for consumers from the Russians.

  6 In contrast, the Commission's new policy proposes, ideally, a break-up ofthese companies into suppliers and distributors. (As a second best solution,especially for France and Germany, it recommends the management of the networksby a third party.) Properly independent managers of Europe's energy networkswould have a strong incentive to build interconnecting pipelines and power linesacross borders. For the gas market another means of ensuring competition andsecurity would be finding a more diverse range of suppliers, for example bybuilding more terminals for the import of liquified natural gas. It would alsobe likely to mean lower prices, if the example of liberalised Britain over thepast ten years is anything to go by.

  7 Whether any of this is likely to happen soon, however, is another matter.The Commission is also calling for European governments to agree on a commoneffort to reduce carbon emissions by at least 20% by 2020 (compared with 1990levels). If America is willing to play ball, the Commission proposes to reduceemissions by as much as 30%. Achieving either target would mean promotingcleaner cars, a more effective emissions-trading system for Europe, wider use ofpublic transport and a sharp increase in the use of renewable sources of energy,like wind and solar power. All that is laudable enough, but will also requirepolitical horse-trading as governments—Europe’s leaders are due to meet in Marchto discuss the various energy proposals—try to avoid commitments that may hurtdomestic energy companies or make European firms less competitive than rivals inAmerica, Asia and elsewhere.

  (689 words)

  Questions 1-5

  Do the following statements reflect the views of the writer in the readingpassage?

  In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet write

  YES if the statement reflects the views of the writer

  NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

  NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this in the passage

  1. Europe’s energy companies have funded the construction of thedistribution network.

  2. There has been a wide range of energy prices within Europe.

  3. Gas-poor Germany has to pay a price higher than average to import gasfrom its neighbour.

  4. E.ON and EDF may oppose the liberalisation due to their concerns aboutthe security of energy supply.

  5. The European Commission proposes to reduce carbon emissions by 30% ifthe U.S. is willing to cut its.

  Questions 6-10

  Look at the box of countries below.

  Choose One or Two countries to complete the following sentences.

  Write your answers in boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet.

  Countries

  A. Belarus

  B. Britain

  C. France

  D. Germany

  E. Russia

  F. Ukraine

  G. The U.S.

  6. It’s dangerous for western Europe to depend too much on gas imports from……

  7. A liberalised policy of energy supply was enforced over ten years in…

  8. Last year energy supplies in central and western Europe was affectedowing to the interruption of gas deliveries to …

  9. The governments in …… are bound to oppose the separation of energysuppliers and transporters?

  10. Oil exports passing via … to Europe was blocked this week.

  Questions 11-14

  Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the reading passage above for eachanswer.

  Write your answers in boxes 11-14.

  11. The EC disagrees with energy firms to strike long-term deals withforeign suppliers because such deals are usually far from …

  12. The EC proposes to split those “national champions” into …

  13. A more diverse range of suppliers would guarantee …in the European gasmarket.

  14. The realization of carbon emissions reduction would require thepromotion of cleaner cars, a better emissions-trading system, wider use ofpublic transport and more use of … of energy.

  IELTS reading needs more practice.An article,Seeking an energy holy trinity, is not enough.We hope that the majority of candidates continue to work hard.


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