托福必备基本语法详解之宾语和主语从句

时间:2019-12-12 14:50:58 托福语法 我要留学
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托福必备基本语法详解之宾语和主语从句

语法的学习是备考托福考试的基础,只有掌握了语法,才能在托福考试中取得好成绩。以下就是艺术留学为大家带来的托福必备基本语法详解之宾语和主语从句,希望对各位的备考有所帮助:

托福必备基本语法详解之宾语和主语从句

Part A

Noun clauses: Introduction

1. I know where she lives.

2. What he said was interesting.

3. Ilistened to what he said.

Important notes

A phraseis a group of words that does NOT contain a subject and a verb.:

  1. His story was interesting.

  2. I heard his story.

  3. I listened to his story.

语法要点

名词性从句简介

1. 从句(Subordinate Clause)是复合句中不能独立成句,但具有主语部分和谓语部分,由that、who、whom,when,why,where。how,which等引导词(Connective)引导非主句部分。

2. 从句不能单独成句,但它也有主语部分和谓语部分,就像一个句子一样。在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句(Nominal Clauses)。名词性从句的功能相当于名词词组,它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等

3. 例句1包含有独立分句和非独立分句。在独立分句中,有一个主语(I)和动词(know). Where she lives就是名字性从句。例句2中,What he said 是一个名词性从句,充当主语成分,而例句2中What he said充当宾语成分。

重要备注

词组短语是由一系列的单词构成的,它不包含主语或者谓语动词。在三句话当中“his story”都是名词词组,不同的是在例句a中,它充当主语,在例句b中,它充当heard的宾语,在例句c中,它充当介词to后的宾语。


Part B

Beginning with a question word

a. Where does she live?

I don’tknow where she lives.

b. When do they arrive?

Do youknow when they arrive?

c. Who lives there?

I don’tknow who lives there.

d. Who is at the door?

I wonder whois at the door.

e. Who is she?

I don’tknow who she is.

f. Whose house is that?

I wonderwhose house that is.

g. What did she say?

What shesaid supervised me.

h. What should they do?

What theyshould do is obvious.

语法要点

1. 例句a中,where she lives是动词know的宾语。在名词性从句,主语应该在动词之前。不能用将疑问句的语序运用在名词性从句当中。同时值得注意的是,does, did, do这类助动词只能用在疑问句中,不能用在名词性从句当中。

2. 例句c中,在疑问句和名词性从句中词语的语序是一致的,这是因为who在句子中充当主语的成分,所以语序不变。

3. 在例句g中,she是整个问题的主语,因此在名词性从句中它应该被放在be动词之前。

4. 在例句g中, what she said是整个句子的主语成分。需要提到的是,在例句h中,我们可以发现如果名词性从句作为主语,那么谓语动词应该是单数。

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