【国外留学学习艺术史】托福阅读历史类短篇练习- The Rise of the Roman Empire

时间:2019-12-12 15:04:15 托福阅读 我要留学

托福阅读中包含各个科目的文章,因此在备考托福的过程中,将文章按类别区分准备是很有必要的。艺术留学为大家总结了托福阅读历史类短篇练习- The Rise of the Roman Empire,希望对各位同学的托福备考有所帮助:

托福阅读历史类短篇练习- The Rise of the Roman Empire

The Rise of the Roman Empire

Rome was established about 1000 B.C. In 509B.C. the Roman Republic was constituted after the citizens of Rome overthrewthe ruling Etruscans. Throughout the next 200 years, Rome expanded over most ofthe Italian peninsula, offering citizenship to the cities it conquered anddemanding in exchange that the cities supply Rome with more soldiers for itsarmy. By 275 B.C. Rome dominated the Italian peninsula. 接下来为大家介绍"分折托福阅读历史类短篇练习- The Rise of the Roman Empire"
托福阅读历史类短篇练习- The Rise of the Roman Empire

Rome’s crusade toward becoming an empireoccurred during the last 200 years B.C. Rome’s principal competitor wasCarthage, a sea power on the northern coast of Africa against whom Rome battledin a series of three wars called the Punic Wars. Rome ultimately prevailed,gaining control of the coasts of Africa and Spain and mastery of the shippingand trade routes of the Mediterranean Sea. Rome also expanded toward the east,acquiring Greece, Macedonia, and Turkey by 133 B.C.

Two reasons explain Rome’s success inovercoming its enemies. Rome’s alliances with cities in Italy provided a sourceof manpower with which it could maintain its military might, and Rome establishedefficient governmental institutions that allowed it to govern effectively,allowing Romans to develop pride and certainty of the justice of theirexpansionist goals. The Republic began to falter from within, as the victoriesabroad were not matched by successes in supporting its own citizens at home. RichRomans called patricians profited while home and abroad led to internalmilitary conflicts, resulting in a series of dictators who attempted to quellthe chaos, including Julius Caesar, who defeated Gaul in 51 B.C. and declaredhimself sole Roman leader in 45 B.C.

A group who favored the restoration of theRepublic assassinated Caesar in 44 B.C. After years of internal battles forcontrol of the Rome, in 27 B.C., Caesar’s adopted son Octavian became the firstRoman Emperor, taking the name of Augustus, which means exalted in Latin. Hisassumption of power ushered in 200 years of peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustusfortified defenses along the borders of the Roman Empire and maintained controlof the foreign provinces, facilitated by a strong civil service that wasstaffed by administrators who governed effectively. During his reign called byhistorians the Augustan Age, art and literature flourished. He ruled until A.D.14, succeeded by a series of able emperors who presided over the height of theempire’s power. Beginning around 160, however, Rome was under continual attackby Germanic tribes from the north and the Parthians from the east. The enormoussize of the empire made it increasingly difficult to defend, setting the stagefor its eventual collapse in 476.  

Passage summary

Rome (1) ________ in 1000 B.C.

    -becomes a (2) ________

    -begins to (3) ________ the Italian (4) ________

(5) ________ was Carthage

    -fought three (6) ________ against it

    -finally (7) ________ the Carthaginians

Republic begins to (8) ________

    -did not support its own (9) ________ (rich people succeeded, but poor did not)

Caesar is (10) ________ in 44 B.C.

Octavian becomes the (11) ________ Augustus

Roman (12) ________ is successful but ultimately fallsin 476 A.D.

参考答案:

•assassinated – 10

•citizens – 9

•defeated – 7

•dominate – 3

•Emperor – 11

•Empire – 12

•established – 1

•falter – 8

•peninsula – 4

•republic – 2

•Rival – 5

•wars – 6


Questions for generalcomprehension

Question 1

According to paragraph 1, Rome’s army grewbecause

  1. it overthrew the Etruscans

  2. it dominated the Italian peninsula

  3. it demanded soldiers in return for citizenship

  4. it was founded in 1000 B.C.

Question 2

According to the passage, the RomanRepublic failed because

  1. it could not support its own citizens

  2. it could not defend itself against cartage

  3. Julius Caesar could not defeat Gaul

  4. it expanded too fast

Question 3

The word whom in the passage refers to

  1. Carthage

  2. Africa

  3. Spain

  4. Greece

Question 4

The word their in the passage refers to

  1. its enemies

  2. cities in Italy

  3. government institutions

  4. Romans

参考答案:

答案1:C

解析:根据文章第一段S3可知,罗马军队之所以成长壮大起来是因为罗马一直扩张到几乎整个意大利半岛并赋予那些被征服的城市市民以罗马公民的身份,作为交换条件,这些城市也要提供更多士兵,与C选项说明的内容一致。

答案2:A

解析:根据文章中Part3 S3可知,罗马共和国虽然在国外取得胜利,但是却无法在安抚国内民众的战斗中取得同样的胜利,即共和国失败的原因是与本国公民之间的矛盾,因此正确答案为A。

答案3:A

解析:文中Part2中的“whom”作为代词,指代的是Rome所在北非沿岸的竞争对谁,那么也就是S2前半句刚刚提及过的“Carthage”(迦太基),因而选A。

答案4:D

解析:文中Part3中出现的their考查指代,原句“…, allowing Romans to develop pride and certainty of the justice oftheir expansionist goals.”可以推断,their即Roman’s,答案为D。

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