【艺术留学珠宝设计费用】托福阅读科学类短篇练习-Darwin and Wallace

时间:2019-12-12 15:04:05 托福阅读 我要留学

托福阅读中包含各个科目的文章产品设计专业留学,因此在备考托福的过程中产品设计专业留学,将文章按类别区分准备是很有必要的。艺术留学为大家总结了托福阅读科学类短篇练习-Darwin and Wallace,希望对各位同学的托福备考有所帮助:接下来为大家介绍"产品设计专业留学述说托福阅读科学类短篇练习-Darwin and Wallace"
托福阅读科学类短篇练习-Darwin and Wallace

产品设计专业留学_托福阅读科学类短篇练习-Darwin and Wallace

Darwin and Wallace达尔文和华莱士

Charles Darwin is commonly credited withbeing the father of the theory of evolution, which he first explained in his1859 book On the Origin of Species. The concept that species may evolveover time had been recognized in the early nineteenth century. But Darwin’sgreat insight was to describe the mechanism that drives the evolutionaryprocess: natural selection. The process of natural selection refers to thetendency for plants and animals to pass desirable traits to their offspring,encouraging the development of species that are well suited to theirenvironment. At the same time, organisms that do not inherit favorable traitstend not to prosper. In that way, the advantageous traits are said to be“naturally” selected.

Darwin lacked training as a naturalist.Indeed, his education was a practical one, acquired on his five-year voyage onthe H. M. S. Beagle, during which he collected fossils and specimens of plantsand animals and took careful notes of the differences he observed among livingthings.

Though he finalized his theory in 1844,many years before he published it, Darwin feared the storm it would cause inreligious circles. The idea that humans evolved from primates conflicted withthe tenets of traditional religion, which insisted that a divine being, God,must be credited with the guiding role in human creation.

Thus Darwin was content to keep quiet abouthis ideas. But he was upset in 1858 when he received a letter and draft of apaper from Alfred Russel Wallace, a young naturalist with whom Darwin had beencorresponding.

Darwin was stunned to realize that Wallacewas preparing to publish a theory of evolution that mirrored Darwin’s own keyideas, including the primacy of natural selection. He faced a dilemma: if hehurried to publish his paper, he would be perceived as taking advantage of thework of another; but if he allowed Wallace to publish first, Darwin would losecredit for his life’s work just because he had been afraid to announce it.

The answer lay in a compromise. Darwinposed the problem to two fellow scientists, who suggested that both men’spapers be presented at an 1858 meeting of a London scientific society. Thepapers attracted little notice at first. But the following year, Darwin’s bookwas a sensation, and evolution became associated with him rather than withWallace. This was due in part to Wallace’s own good nature. He was willing togive Darwin most of the credit, even calling the theory Darwinism. Also,Wallace’s reputation suffered later in his life when he pursued non-scientificsubjects such as spiritualism and extraterrestrial life.

Passage summary

Charles Darwin

    -(1) ________ a theory of (2) ________ in 1844

    -presented his paper to a London (3) ________ in 1858

    -published (4) ________ in 1859 that describes (5) ________

    -(6) ________ for the theory of evolution

Alfred Russel Wallace

    -ready to (7) ________ a theory of evolution in 1858

    -presented his paper at the same time with (8) ________

    -gave most of the (9) ________ to Darwin

    -lost credit due to studying (10) ________

参考答案:

•completed – 1

•credit – 9

•credited – 6

•Darwin – 8

•evolution – 2

•natural selection – 5

•non-scientific subjects – 10

On the Origin of Species – 4

•publish – 7

•scientific society – 3


Questions for general comprehension

Question 1

According to the passage, Darwin wasreluctant to publish his theory because

  1. he could not prove it

  2. he lacked training as a naturalist

  3. he feared the religious controversy it would cause

  4. Alfred Russel Wallace had discovered it first

Question 2

According to paragraph 5, Darwin becamebetter known than Wallace because

  1. Wallace’s theories were not as convincing

  2. Wallace lost respect by studying the spirit world

  3. Darwin was a better self-promoter

  4. Wallace was not a member of London’s leading scientific society     

参考答案:

答案1:C

解析:文章Part 2 中的第三句话(S3)当中明确提到了…, many years before he published it, Darwin feared the stormit would cause in religious circles. 达尔文在完成了自己的理论后一直担忧他的理论可能会宗教领域引发风暴,即答案中提及的宗教的争论。

答案2:B

解析:根据文章第五段最后一句话(S7)Wallace’s reputation suffered later in his life when he pursuednon-scientific subjects… 可以看出华莱士的声誉也由于他晚年研究一些非科学的理论尔受损,即答案中所言的精神世界。


Questions for general comprehension

Question 3

The word prosper in the passage is closestin meaning to

  1. succeed

  2. migrate

  3. change

  4. adapt

Question 4

The word pursued in the passage is closestin meaning to

  1. recognized

  2. dismissed

  3. researched

  4. continued

参考答案:

答案3:A

解析:prosper 除繁荣昌盛的常用意,这里是考查其“成功”之意,即和succeed 为同义词,此外migrate 表示“移动产品设计专业留学,移居”而change 表示“改变”,adapt是“适应”的意思,与to 连用。

答案4:C

解析:与文章意思一致,这里的pursue“追求”即可以理解为搞研究,所以也和study产品设计专业留学,research为同义替换,此外recognize 表示“识别产品设计专业留学,认出”,dismiss表示“解散,解雇”,continue 表示“继续”。

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