【西安艺术类留学预科班】托福阅读考古学类短篇练习- The Archaeopteryx Fossil

时间:2019-12-12 15:03:53 托福阅读 我要留学

托福阅读中包含各个科目的文章,因此在备考托福的过程中,将文章按类别区分准备是很有必要的。艺术留学为大家总结了托福阅读考古学类短篇练习- The Archaeopteryx Fossil,希望对各位同学的托福备考有所帮助:

托福阅读考古学类短篇练习- The Archaeopteryx Fossil

Thomas Hunt Morgan

The Archaeopteryx fossil was a veryimportant discovery by archaeologists. It was discovered in Southern Germany,where there are many well-preserved fossils. The Archaeopteryx fossil is theremains of an ancient bird, which is about 150 million years old. Manyscientists believe that Archaeopteryx might have been the first kind of bird ever.It is not very similar to the kinds of birds we see today. Scientists believeit was part bird and part dinosaur because it had feathers and wings but it wasalso reptilian, like the ancient dinosaurs.接下来为大家介绍"解读托福阅读考古学类短篇练习- The Archaeopteryx Fossil"
托福阅读考古学类短篇练习- The Archaeopteryx Fossil

Unlike birds in today 's world,Archaeopteryx had a full set of teeth, a flat chest, a long, bony tail, andthree claws on its wings, which might have been used to attack prey or to holdon to trees. In fact, from looking at the fossils of Archaeopteryx, the ancientcreature looks a lot more like a dinosaur than a bird.

A big debate amongst scientists is whatArchaeopteryx used its feathers for. Some scientists suggest they were used tocontrol their body temperature while others believe that they were used forflight. This is a very important question for scientists because they want toknow how animals first started to fly.

There are two theories about the origin offlight and about what Archaeopteryx used its feathers for. The first argumentis called trees-down; this is the theory that birds their feathers to glidedown to the ground from trees much like how flying squirrels do today. Theother argument is called ground-up; this is the theory that ancient birds livedon the ground and used their feathers to help them make long leaps into treeswhenever they needed to. For example, if they needed to get away frompredators, then they could jump into the trees from a great distance and holdon to them with their claws.

Scientists are curious as to why ancientbirds stroked their wings like modern birds. They believe it might be relatedto the way that some kinds of dinosaurs used their strong forearms to grabdownwards and hold on to their prey. If Archaeopteryx did this, then it mighthave learned that it could also use its strong forearms to flap its wings andstay in the air for longer periods of time. Over millions of years, animalsthat were related to Archaeopteryx might have been able to stay in the air forlonger and longer until finally they could fly like modern birds do.

Passage summary

Remains of ancient bird found in (1) ________

Characteristics

    -about (2) ________ years old

    -maybe first (3) ________ ever

    -was part (4) ________ and part (5) ________

Don’t know the use of (6) ________

    -some think to (7) ________

    - others think to (8) ________

Theories on (9) ________

    -trees-down → used features to (10) ________ from trees

    -ground up → used features to (11) ________

参考答案:

•150 million – 2

•bird – 3

•bird – 4

•control body temperature – 7

•dinosaur – 5

•feathers – 6

•flight origins – 9

•fly – 8

•glide down – 10

•leap into trees – 11

•Southern Germany – 1


Questions for general comprehension

Question 1

According to the paragraph 1, Archaeopteryxused the claws on its wings for

  1. flying

  2. grabbing things

  3. defensive purposes

  4. fishing

Question 2

According to the passage, why do scientistswant to know why ancient birds stroked their wings?

  1. They will be able to find out the birds’ mating habits.

  2. They might understand more about evolution.

  3. They will be able to learn when animals first learned how to     fly.

  4. They will learn the secret to how Archaeopteryx could fly for     so long.

Question 3

Which expresses the first highlightedsentence?

  1. Scientists think that Archaeopteryx was created when a bird and dinosaur mated with one another, giving it characteristics of both.

  2. Since Archaeopteryx had feathers but was reptilian, scientists think it was a cross between a bird and a dinosaur.

  3. Archaeopteryx had features like a bird and was also reptilian, so this makes scientists believe that it was an ancient dinosaur.

  4. Many scientists believe that the ancient dinosaurs were both part bird and part dinosaur.

Question 4

Which expresses the second highlightedsentence?

  1. Archaeopteryx’s first flight and the purpose of its feathers can be explained in two ways.

  2. Two theories perfectly describe the uses of Archaeopteryx’s feathers and flight origins.

  3. Scientists are not sure how Archaeopteryx learned to fly or how it used its feathers.

  4. The great mysteries of Archaeopteryx are the use of its feathers and how it learned to fly.

参考答案:

答案1:B

解析:文章 Part 2 当中的第一句话(S1)当中明确提到了… and three claws on its wings, which might have been used to attackprey or to hold on to trees …由此可见是为了捕猎或者抓住树,选项里没有捕猎的相关选项,只有B.选项中的抓住东西为正确答案

答案2:C

解析:根据文章 Part 4 当中的第一句话(S1)Scientists are curious as to why ancient birds stroked theirwings...后面补充道始祖鸟如何开始在空中停留越来越长时间,过了很久可以变成现代鸟。可以推出,科学家们想要知道具体多久之前始祖鸟开始学会飞。

答案3:B

解析:文章Part 1 当中的第六句话(S6)当中说始祖鸟半鸟半恐龙排除C,选择B. 没有mate,排除A。对象是始祖鸟不是恐龙,排除D

答案4:A

解析:文章 Part 3 当中的第一句话(S1)当中说飞行起源和羽毛用途有两种理论,排除C.D,选择A。不是perfectly, 排除B。

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