TPO 1 LECTURE 3
主题： 考古学 Archaeology
Neolithic period 新石器时代
Stone age 石器时代
1. 文章的主旨（main purpose )
To introduce to introduce the town building of Catalhoyuk
Concentrate on this site to understand agricultural settlement
They did with just stone, plus wood,bricks, that sort of thing. And the stone is Obsidian.
房屋形状：The houses are all rectangular, one storey made of sun-dried bricks.There are no spaces between houses (so
there is no streets).
房屋构造: The houses have no doors,and people enter into the house through a hatchway on the roof. There are one main
room and several small rooms for storage.
通风排烟问题：There are hearths in the main room for cooking and heating, but the smoke went out through the same hatchway that people use for going in and out.
Burial custom (the graves have all found under the houses)---- they wanted to live as near as their ancestors’ graves and be buried near them themselves.
TPO 1 LECTURE 4
主题： 生物学 Biology
growing season 生长期，生长季节
土拨鼠, 也叫旱獭. 土拨鼠平均体重为4.5公斤，最大可成长至6.5公斤，身长约为56公分。土拨鼠主要分布于北美大草原至加拿大等地区，与松鼠、海狸、花栗鼠等皆属于啮齿目松鼠科
1. 文章的主旨 (main purpose)
Review the case study (Eastern marmot,Olympic marmot) on how some animals have behaviorally adapted to their environments
2. 土拔鼠（marmot） 是什么？
Marmot are rodents. They are large ground squirrels, about the size of an average house cat.
3. Eastern marmot的生长环境和后天行为
生长环境：They reside throughout the eastern region of North America where there is a temperate climate.
后天行为：They mature quickly. Roughly six weeks after birth, Eastern Marmots are just old enough to take their chances of surviving.
4. Olympic marmot的生长环境和后天行为
生长环境：The Olympic marmots inhabit meadows high in the Olympic Mountains where the weather conditions are much harsher.
后天行为：They live together as a family and take care of their young until they are at least two years old.