Great Pyramid of Giza
埃及吉萨的 10 座金字塔是古代七大奇迹之一,它们耸立在尼罗河两岸的沙漠之上,在离当时的首都孟菲斯不远的吉萨建造,是古埃及时期最高的建筑成就。金字塔如此高大,使人们很容易相信它们是神或巨人所建造的古代传说。
The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest andlargest of the three pyramids in Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wondersof the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.
Egyptologists believe that the pyramid wasbuilt as a tomb over a 10 to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC.Initially at 146.5 meters, the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structurein the world for over 3,800 years. Originally, the Great Pyramid was covered bycasing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is theunderlying core structure. Some of the casing stones that once covered thestructure can still be seen around the base. There have been varying scientificand alternative theories about the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. Mostaccepted construction hypotheses are based on the idea that it was built bymoving huge stones from a quarry and dragging
and lifting them into place.
1. 吉萨金字塔是埃及最大最古老的金字塔群落。同时它也是世界七大奇迹中历史最悠久的一个,并且是其中唯一的一个被大部分完整的保留下来的。过去 3800 年里,大金字塔是人工建筑里最高的。
2. 埃及古物学者认为是在公元前大约 2560 年前作为祖先的坟墓建造的。
Test Point – TPO33L1
Of course there have been a lot of theoriesover the centuries. The oldest recorded one is by the Greek historianHerodotus. He visited Egypt around 450 B.C.E. when the pyramid was already twothousand years old. His theory was that cranes were used much like we usecranes today to construct tall buildings, and Herodotus may have seen Egyptiansusing cranes made of wood. But the problem with this theory has to do withsimple mechanics: a crane needs a wide and sturdy base to stand on or it willfall over. Well, as you get to the top of the pyramid, there's really no placefor a crane to stand. The stone blocks are too narrow to provide a base. Well,so much for that theory.
The next one has to do with the use of aramp that would allow workers to drag a stone block up the side of thestructure. Of course the ramp can't be too steep. It has to have a long, gentleslope and that's the problem. If you built a ramp with a slight slope up to thetop of the pyramid that's over 130 meters high, it would have to be almost twokilometers long. Well, the pyramid is built on a flat area called the Gizaplateau. The plateau is simply not big enough to accommodate a two-kilometerlong ramp. OK, so what now?
3.另一个理论认为,金字塔的建造是利用斜坡。斜坡不能太陡,而应该是一个长的平缓的坡度。但是这个理论的缺陷是,按照对坡度的要求,斜坡足足要有 2000 米长,这一假设不符合金字塔所在的地理特征