西安丹青艺术留学收费托福听力考古学背景知识:通道式墓室

时间:2019-12-12 15:14:47 托福听力 我要留学

托福听力词汇以及相关背景知识的积累艺术设计读研留学,是一个相当漫长的过程,需要考生在平时的生活中多总结艺术设计读研留学,多记忆。艺术留学的老师为大家整理了托福听力考古学背景知识:通道式墓室艺术设计读研留学,希望对各位同学的托福听力备考有所帮助:接下来为大家介绍"艺术设计读研留学解疑托福听力考古学背景知识:通道式墓室"
托福听力考古学背景知识:通道式墓室

Introduction:

Passage Grave

通道式墓室由来已久,最近科学家们研究发现它不仅可以用来作为坟墓,而且可以用来研究天文物理现象。

Background information:

A passage grave (sometimes hyphenated) orpassage tomb consists of a narrow passage made of large stones and one ormultiple burial chambers covered in earth or stone. The building of passagetombs was normally carried out with megaliths and smaller stones; they usuallydate from the Neolithic Age. Those with more than one chamber may have multiplesub-chambers leading off from the main burial chamber. One common layout, thecruciform passage grave, is cross-shaped. Sometimes passage tombs are coveredwith acairn, especially those dating from later times. Not all passage graveshave been found to contain evidence of human remains. One such example isMaeshowe.

Passage tombs of the cairn type often haveelaborate corbelled roofs rather than simple slabs. Megalithic art has beenidentified carved into the stones at some sites. The passage itself, in anumber of notable instances, is aligned in such a way that the sun shines intothe passage at a significant point in the year, for example at sunrise on thewinter solstice or at sunset on the equinox.

Knowledge points:

1. 通道式坟墓由许多大石头组成的狭窄通道和一个或者多个用泥土或者石头覆盖的葬礼内庭构成。

2. 通道式坟墓一般分布在新石器时代

3. 有时候通道式坟墓由石冢所覆盖,特别是近代的。

4. 石冢式的通道式坟墓经常有精美的支撑屋顶。屋顶和一年中的特殊时刻相联系,比如冬至的日出或者春分的日落。

Vocabulary prediction:

Neolithic  新石器时代的

Tomb  坟墓

Chamber  室,内庭

Monument  纪念碑遗迹

Test Point – TPO14L4

Professor

When we think of large monumentalstructures built by early societies and Egyptian pyramid probably comes tomind. But there are some even earlier structures in the British Isles alsoworth discussing, and besides the well-known circle of massive stones ofStonehenge which don’t get me wrong is remarkable enough, well, otherimpressive Neolithic structures are found there too. Oh, yes, we are talkingabout the Neolithic period here, also called new Stone Age, which was the timebefore stone tools began to be replaced by tools made by bronze and othermetals.

It was about 5000 years ago, even beforethe first Egyptian pyramid that some of amazing Neolithic monuments---tombs,were racketed at the very size around ironed Great Britain and costal islandsnearby.

I am referring particular to structuresthat in some cases, look like ordinary natural hills. But we definitely buildby humans, well-organized communities of human’s to enclose a chamber or roomwithin stone walls and sometimes with a high, cleverly designed sealing ofoverlapping stones. These structures are called Passage Graves, because in thechamber, sometime several chambers in fact, could only be entered from theoutside through a narrow passage way.

Michael:

Excuse me, professor, but you said PassageGraves. Was this just monument to honor the dead buried there or were theydesigned to be used somehow by the living?

Professor:

Ah, yes! Good question, Michael. Besidesbeing built as tombs, some of these Passage Graves were definitely what wemight call Astronomical Calendars, with chambers they flooded with some lighton the certain special days of the year, which must see miraculous and inspiredgood dealer of they really just wonder. But research indicates that not justlight but also the physics of sound help to enhance this religious experience.

Knowledge points

1.新石器时代,大约在 5000 年前,是指石制工具被铜质工具和其他金属工具替代之前的时期。

2.通道式坟墓是指石墙堆砌而成的一个房间。这个房间,有时候是好几个房间,只能从外面通过一个狭窄的通道进入

3.通道式坟墓不仅仅是坟墓,一些可以被叫做天文年历,室内在一年中的特殊的日子出现充满阳光的奇特景观。不仅是光线,声音的物理现象也可以帮助增强这种奇特的体验

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