欧名艺术留学中心上海托福听力天文学背景知识:地心说和日心说

时间:2019-12-12 15:14:36 托福听力 我要留学

托福听力词汇以及相关背景知识的积累艺术设计留学读博,是一个相当漫长的过程艺术设计留学读博,需要考生在平时的生活中多总结艺术设计留学读博,多记忆。艺术留学的老师为大家整理了托福听力天文学背景知识:地心说和日心说,希望对各位同学的托福听力备考有所帮助:接下来为大家介绍"艺术设计留学读博解疑托福听力天文学背景知识:地心说和日心说"
托福听力天文学背景知识:地心说和日心说

Introduction:

Geocentric and Heliocentric theory

地心说最初由古希腊学者欧多克斯提出,后经亚里士多德、托勒密进一步发展而逐渐建立和完善起来。托勒密认为,地球处于宇宙中心静止不动。从地球向外依次有月球、水星、金星、太阳、火星、木星和土星,在各自的轨道上绕地球运转。其中,行星的运动要比太阳、月球复杂些:行星在本轮上运动,而本轮又沿均轮绕地运行。在太阳、月球、行星之外,是镶嵌着所有恒星的天球恒星天。再外面,是推动天体运动的原动天。哥白尼提出的日心说,推翻了长期以来居于宗教统治地位的地心说,实现了天文学的根本变革。日心说,也称为地动说,是关于天体运动的和地心说相对立的学说,它认为太阳是宇宙的中心,而不是地球。

Background information:

In astronomy, the geocentric model (alsoknown as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a description of the cosmoswhere Earth is at the orbital center of all celestial bodies. This model servedas the predominant cosmological system in many ancient civilizations such asancient Greece including the noteworthy systems of Aristotle (see Aristotelianphysics) and Ptolemy. As such, they assumed that the Sun, Moon, stars, andnaked eye planets circled Earth.

Heliocentrism, or heliocentricism, is theastronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around a relativelystationary Sun at the center of the Solar System. The word comes from the Greek(ἥλιος helios "sun" and κέντρον kentron "center").Historically, heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earthat the center. The notion that the Earth revolves around the Sun had beenproposed as early as the 3rd century BC by Aristarchus of Samos, but at leastin the post-ancient world Aristarchus's heliocentrism attracted littleattention—possibly because of the loss of scientific works of the HellenisticEra —until Copernicus revived and elaborated it.

Knowledge points:

1. 地心说是指地球是所有天体的中心。亚里士多德和托勒密都支持这一理论。他们认为太阳,月亮和星体都围绕着地球。

2. 太阳中心说是指太阳是地球和其他星体的中心。直到哥白尼修改了和阐释了太阳中心说,它才重新引起人们的兴趣。

Vocabulary prediction:

Geocentric    以地球为中心的

Stationary    静止的

Astronomical    天文学的

Orbit    轨道

Gravity    重力

Epicycle    本轮

Test Point – TPO21L1

For example, Greek astronomers madeexcellent, very accurate observations of the movements of the planets, but theobservations revealed a bit of a problem. The geocentric theory said, that theplanets would move around the Earth in one direction. However, astronomersnoticed that at times, several planets seem to stop moving in one direction andstart moving backward in their orbits around the Earth, and they came up with atheory that these planets themselves moved in smaller circles called epicyclesas they travelled around the Earth. Here’s a picture of what they imagined. Yousee how this epicycle theory could account for the seemingly backward motion ofthe planet. Of course, today we know that this appearance of backward motion iscaused by the fact that Earth, as well as other planets, all move in their ownorbits around the Sun, and the relative movements of the planets with respectto each other can get quite complex.

However, there were a few astronomers inGreece and other places who didn’t agree with the geocentric view, for example,a Greek astronomer who lived in the third century B.C.E. He proposed the theorythat our planetary system might be heliocentric, his name was Aristarchus.Heliocentric means Sun-centered, that the Earth revolves around the Sun.Aristarchus recognized from his calculations that the Sun was much larger thanthe Earth and other planets. It was probably this discovery that led him toconclude that the universe is heliocentric. I mean, isn’t it more sensible tothink that a smaller heavenly body would orbit a larger one, rather than theopposite?

Knowledge points

1.地心说认为行星将会以同一个方向绕着地球旋转。但是,天文学家注意到有时候,一些行星会在一个方向停止转动,然后在轨道上朝反方向运动。天文学家把这种在小范围的围着地球的反转运动叫做本轮。

2.不是所有的科学家都同意地心说。一个希腊的天文学家,阿里斯塔克斯,认为我们的行星系统可能是以太阳为中心的。他这么认为可能是由于太阳比地球和其他行星要大。

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