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美术艺术生有必要留学述说雅思阅读练习:Sleep medication linked to bizarre behaviour

雅思阅读 2020-01-27 09:30:01
摘要:让人眼花缭乱的 雅思阅读练习材料 ,充斥着考生的眼球,让考生们不知如何下眼,从何看起。那么小编建议还是别把视线放在市面上那些随处遍布的阅读练习材料,来看看今天100教育

  让人眼花缭乱的雅思阅读练习材料,充斥着考生的眼球,让考生们不知如何下眼,从何看起。那么小编建议还是别把视线放在市面上那些随处遍布的阅读练习材料,来看看今天100教育小编特意为大家带来的极富价值的雅思阅读练习题吧。

  Sleep medication linked to bizarre behaviour

  12:44 06 February 2007

  NewScientist.com news service

  Roxanne Khamsi

  New evidence has linked a commonly prescribed sleep medication with bizarrebehaviours, including a case in which a woman painted her front door in hersleep.

  UK and Australian health agencies have released information about 240 casesof odd occurrences, including sleepwalking, amnesia and hallucinations amongpeople taking the drug zolpidem.

  While doctors say that zolpidem can offer much-needed relief for peoplewith sleep disorders, they caution that these newly reported cases should prompta closer look at its possible side effects.

  Zolpidem, sold under the brand names Ambien, Stilnoct and Stilnox, iswidely prescribed to treat insomnia and other disorders such as sleep apnea.Various forms of the drug, made by French pharmaceutical giant Sanofi-Aventis,were prescribed 674,500 times in 2005 in the UK.

  A newly published report from Australia’s Federal Health Departmentdescribes 104 cases of hallucinations and 62 cases of amnesia experienced bypeople taking zolpidem since marketing of the drug began there in 2000. Thehealth department report also mentioned 16 cases of strange sleepwalking bypeople taking the medication.

  Midnight snack

  In one of these sleepwalking cases a patient woke with a paintbrush in herhand after painting the front door to her house. Another case involved a womanwho gained 23 kilograms over seven months while taking zolpidem. “It was onlywhen she was discovered in front of an open refrigerator while asleep that theproblem was resolved,” according to the report.

  The UK’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, meanwhile,has recorded 68 cases of adverse reactions to zolpidem from 2001 to 2005.

  The newly reported cases in the UK and Australia add to a growing list ofbizarre sleepwalking episodes linked to the drug in other countries, includingreports of people sleep-driving while on the medication. In one case, atransatlantic flight had to be diverted after a passenger caused havoc aftertaking zolpidem.

  Hypnotic effects

  There is no biological pathway that has been proven to connect zolpidemwith these behaviours. The drug is a benzodiazepine-like hypnotic that promotesdeep sleep by interacting with brain receptors for a chemical calledgamma-aminobutyric acid. While parts of the brain become less active during deepsleep, the body can still move, making sleepwalking a possibility.

  The product information for prescribers advises that psychiatric adverseeffects, including hallucinations, sleepwalking and nightmares, are more likelyin the elderly, and treatment should be stopped if they occur.

  Patient advocacy groups say they would like government health agencies anddrug companies to take a closer look at the possible risks associated with sleepmedicines. They stress that strange sleepwalking and sleep-driving behaviourscan have risky consequences.

  “When people do something in which they’re not in full control it’s alwaysa danger,” says Vera Sharav of the New York-based Alliance for Human ResearchProtection, a US network that advocates responsible and ethical medical researchpractices.

  Tried and tested

  “The more reports that come out about the potential side effects of thedrug, the more research needs to be done to understand if these are real sideeffects,” says sleep researcher Kenneth Wright at the University of Colorado inBoulder, US.

  Millions of people have taken the drug without experiencing any strangeside effects, points out Richard Millman at Brown Medical School, director ofthe Sleep Disorders Center of Lifespan Hospitals in Providence, Rhode Island,US. He says that unlike older types of sleep medications, zolpidem does notcarry as great a risk of addiction.

  And Wright notes that some of the reports of “sleep-driving” linked tozolpidem can be easily explained: some patients have wrongly taken the drugright before leaving work in hopes that the medicine will kick in by the timethey reach home. Doctors stress that the medication should be taken just beforegoing to bed.

  The US Food & Drug Administration says it is continuing to "activelyinvestigate" and collect information about cases linking zolpidem to unusualside effects.

  The Ambien label currently lists strange behaviour as a “special concern”for people taking the drug. “It’s a possible rare adverse event,” saysSanofi-Aventis spokesperson Melissa Feltmann, adding that the strangesleepwalking behaviours “may not necessarily be caused by the drug” but insteadresult from an underlying disorder. She says that “the safety profile [ofzolpidem] is well established”. The drug received approval in the US in1993.接下来为大家介绍"述说雅思阅读练习:Sleep medication linked to bizarre behaviour"
雅思阅读练习:Sleep medication linked to bizarre behaviour

  (721)

  Questions 1-6

  Do the following statements agree with the information given in the readingpassage?

  In boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet write

  TRUE if the statement is true according to the passage

  FALSE if the statement is false according to the passage

  NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage

  1. Ambien, Stilnoct and Stilnox are brand names of one same drug treatinginsomnia.

  2. The woman’s obesity problem wasn’t resolved until she stopped takingzolpidem.

  3. Zolpidem received approval in the UK in 2001.

  4. The bizarre behaviour of a passenger after taking zolpidem resulted inthe diversion of a flight bound for the other side of the Atlantic.

  5. Zolpidem is the only sleep medication that doesn’t cause addiction.

  6. The sleep-driving occurrence resulted from the wrong use of zolpidem byan office worker.

  Question 7-9

  Choose the appropriate letters A-D and Write them in boxes 7-9 on youranswer sheet.

  7. How many cases of bizarre behaviours are described in an official reportfrom Australia?

  A. 68

  B. 104

  C. 182

  D. 240

  8. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the product information aboutzolpidem?

  A. Treatment should be stopped if side effects occur.

  B. Medication should be taken just before going to bed.

  C. Adverse effects are more likely in the elderly.

  D. Side effects include nightmares, hallucinations and sleepwalking.

  9. Who claimed that the safety description of zolpidem was wellestablished?

  A. Kenneth Wright

  B. Melissa Feltmann

  C. Richard Millman

  D. Vera Sharav

  Questions 10-13

  Answer the following questions with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS each in boxes10-13.

  10. How many times was French-made zolpidem prescribed in 2005 inBritain?

  11. What kind of hypnotic is zolpidem as a drug which promotes deep sleepin patients?

  12. What can sleepwalking and sleep-driving behaviours cause according topatient advocacy groups?

  13. What US administration says that it has been investigating the casesrelating zolpidem to unusual side effects?

  Answer keys and explanations:

  1. True

  See para.3 from the beginning: Zolpidem, sold under the brand names Ambien,Stilnoct and Stilnox, is widely prescribed to treat insomnia and other disorderssuch as sleep apnea.

  2. False

  See para.1 under the subtitle “Midnight snack”: Another case involved awoman who gained 23 kilograms over seven months while taking zolpidem. “It wasonly when she was discovered in front of an open refrigerator while asleep thatthe problem was resolved”…

  3. Not Given

  See para.2 under the subtitle “Midnight snack”: The UK’s Medicines andHealthcare products Regulatory Agency, meanwhile, has recorded 68 cases ofadverse reactions to zolpidem from 2001 to 2005. (The time the drug was approvedin the UK was not mentioned.)

  4. True

  See para.3 under the subtitle “Midnight snack”: In one case, atransatlantic flight had to be diverted after a passenger caused havoc aftertaking zolpidem.

  5. False

  See para.2 under the subtitle “Tried and tested”: He says that unlike oldertypes of sleep medications, zolpidem does not carry as great a risk ofaddiction.

  6. Not Given

  See para.3 under the subtitle “Tried and tested”: And Wright notes thatsome of the reports of “sleep-driving” linked to zolpidem can be easilyexplained: some patients have wrongly taken the drug right before leaving workin hopes that the medicine will kick in by the time they reach home. (Nopatients as office workers are mentioned in the passage.)

  7. C

  See para.4 from the beginning: A newly published report from Australia’sFederal Health Department describes 104 cases of hallucinations and 62 cases ofamnesia experienced by people taking zolpidem since marketing of the drug beganthere in 2000. The health department report also mentioned 16 cases of strangesleepwalking by people taking the medication.

  8. B

  See the sentence in para.2 under the subtitle “Hypnotic effects” (Theproduct information for prescribers advises that psychiatric adverse effects,including hallucinations, sleepwalking and nightmares, are more likely in theelderly, and treatment should be stopped if they occur.) and the sentence inpara.3 under the subtitle “Tried and tested” (Doctors “not the productinformation” stress that the medication should be taken just before going tobed.)

  9. B

  See para.5 under the subtitle “Tried and tested”: Sanofi-Aventisspokesperson Melissa Feltmann … says that “the safety profile [of zolpidem] iswell established”.

  10. 674,500 (times)

  See para.3 from the beginning: Various forms of the drug, made by Frenchpharmaceutical giant Sanofi-Aventis, were prescribed674,500 times in 2005 in theUK.

  11. (a) benzodiazepine-like (hypnotic)

  See para.1 under the subtitle “Hypnotic effects”: The drug is abenzodiazepine-like hypnotic (类苯二氮催眠药)that promotes deep sleep by interactingwith brain receptors for a chemical called gamma-aminobutyric acid.

  12. risky consequences

  See para.3 under the subtitle “Hypnotic effects”: Patient advocacy groups …stress that strange sleepwalking and sleep-driving behaviours can have riskyconsequences.

  13. Food & Drug (Administration)

  See para.4 under the subtitle “Tried and tested”: The US Food & DrugAdministration says it is continuing to "actively investigate" and collectinformation about cases linking zolpidem to unusual side effects.

  做完以上的雅思阅读练习材料之后,不知大家的正确率怎么样呢!但不管结果怎么样,每次做完练习题之后,大家都要学会总结归纳,以免以后再犯同样的错误!


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