This course will give you the opportunity to develop and practice readingstrategies and skills which can be applied to all forms of IELTS tests. Thestrategies and skills you will practice are as follows:
5.Guessing unknown words
6.Understanding main ideas
8.Understanding text organization
9.Assessing a writer’s purpose
10.Evaluating a writer’s attitude.
Before you read a text in detail, it is possible to predict whatinformation you may find in it. You will probably have some knowledge of thesubject already, and you can use this knowledge to help you anticipate what areading text contains. After looking at the title, for example, you can askyourself what you know and do not know about the subject before you read thetext. Or you can formulate questions that you would like to have answered byreading the text. These exercises will help you focus more effectively on theideas in a text when you actually start reading.接下来为大家介绍"讲解雅思阅读策略及技巧大全(英)"
To help you predict, you may also use skimming and scanning strategies asdescribed below.
Skimming involves reading quickly through a text to get an overall idea ofits contents. Features of the text that can help you include the following:
(c) Details about the author
(e) Introductory paragraph
(f) First, second and last sentences of following paragraphs
(g) Concluding paragraph
A text may not contain all of these features - there may be no abstract,for example, and no sub-titles - but you can usually expect to find at least(a), (e), (f) and (g). Focusing on these will give you an understanding of theoverall idea or gist of the text you are reading - in other words, a generalunderstanding as opposed to a detailed reading.
Another term for this kind of reading is surveying. Surveying can bedescribed as looking quickly through a book, chapter of a book, article from ajournal, etc., to decide whether or not it is suitable for your purpose. Todecide whether or not a text is suitable, especially if it is a book, you willalso need to focus on the following features in addition to those mentionedabove:
(a) Edition and date of publication
(b) Table of contents
When you scan a text, again you look quickly through it. However, unlikeskimming, scanning involves looking for specific words, scanning involves rapidreading for the specific rather than the general; for particular details ratherthan the overall idea. When you read a text, for example, you may want to findonly a percentage figure or the dates of particular historical events instead ofthe main ideas. Scanning will help you find such information moreefficiently.
4 Detailed reading
A second and third reading of a text will also focus on the secondary ideasand details which support, explain and develop the main ideas. This can bedescribed as a more comprehensive reading. It involves a slower and more carefulreading process. At this stage you can also try to guess the meaning ofunfamiliar vocabulary.
5 Guessing unknown words
It is unlikely that you will understand 100 percent of the vocabulary in atext, especially at a first reading. Use first the context and then your ownknowledge of the subject to help you guess the meaning of unknown words. At yourfirst reading of a text it is usually best not to stop and consult yourdictionary. This will interrupt your process of reading and understanding. oftenthe meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases becomes clear as you continue toread through the text. The dictionary can be used at a later stage.
In using the context to help you guess unknown vocabulary, you can referfirst to immediate context and then to the wider context in which a word isfound. The immediate context is the sentence in which a word is found, andsometimes the sentences immediately before and after this. The wider context caninclude other sentences and even other paragraphs in a text. Both forms ofcontext can often provide important information which help you guess the meaningof unfamiliar words.
6 Understanding main ideas
You will practice recognizing the main ideas contained within a text. Inthe process of skimming you will already have identified some of these mainideas. During a second and third reading you can recognize and understand themmore fully. Each paragraph will usually contain one main idea. sometimesreferred to as the paragraph topic.
The reading materials provide several exercises which help you identify andunderstand the main ideas in a text. Knowing the key points in a reading text isvital in assessing its importance and relevance for your needs. Understandingthe main ideas will also lead you to an understanding of a writer’sorganization.
Sometimes a writer will suggest or express something indirectly in a text.In other words, a writer will imply something and leave it to the reader toinfer or understand what is meant. When writers do this, they rely to someextent on the knowledge of their readers - knowledge of a subject or culturalknowledge, for example. Inferring a writer’s meaning is sometimes important inthe process of understanding a reading text.
8 Understanding text organization
Writers structure, or organize, their writing in many different ways.Recognizing the way in which a text has been organized will help you understandits meaning more fully. A writer may want, for example, to outline a situation,discuss a problem and propose a solution. This will usually result in aparticular pattern of organization. Or a writer may want to compare and contrasttwo ideas and will choose one of two basic structures commonly used to compareand contrast.
Another feature related to organization is a writer’s use of time. To givean account of events or describe a process, writers will often use achronological order, in which events are recounted in thesgroupsin which theyhave occurred. Other writers will choose to organize an account of events indifferent ways, perhaps with repeated contrasts between past and presenttime.
9 Assessing a writer’s purpose
Once you understand the organization of a text, you can then recognize thewriter’s purpose more clearly. The text organization a writer selects willpartly depend upon his or her particular purpose. A writer may want to inform orpersuade, and he or she will select a structure or pattern of organizationaccording to this purpose.
A writer may also intend to do both of these things in a written text - toinform as will as persuade. In such cases it is often helpful to try to assesswhich of these purposes seems to be more important or dominant.
10 Evaluating a writer’s attitude.
Writers are not necessarily neutral or objective when they write,particularly if the are trying to persuade readers to agree with their opinions.It is important that you recognize what an author’s attitude is in relation tothe ideas or information being presented. This is because such attitudes caninfluence the ways in which information is presented. You will be looking atways in which a writer’s attitude may be identified. You will also practiceevaluating how relatively neutral or biased his or her attitude may be.
DEMONSTRATION - TEXT AND QUESTIONS
Do not read the following text and questions first. Go directly to the Howto Answer section which will show you the most efficient way of answering thequestions.
YOUR POST OFFICE
at your service
At our main offices we are introducing,swheresappropriate, a number ofchanges to help improve the standard of service provided to our customers.
Similar developments are taking place at many of our agency offices.
more staff at peak periods for faster service a single queuing system forfairer service special service windows for some transactions Post-Shops in mainoffices with their own separate service till for greeting cards, stationery,stamps and gifts the refurbishment of a number of main offices to provide abetter environment new vending machine services such as cash-change machines,and phonecard and stamp dispensers for faster service extended opening hours atselected main offices a new range of air package services. Questions 1-3 Do thefollowing statements agree with the information given in the reading passageabove? Write:
TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
in the correct boxes on your answer sheet.
1. All offices will have more staff throughout the day.
2. There will be special service windows for cash transactions at all mainoffices.
3. It will be possible to obtain some items from machines in manyoffices.
Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS answer the following question.
4. Which change will ensure that the customers are treated more fairly?
Choose the correct answer by writing A, B, C, or D.
5. Which offices will stay open longer?
A all offices
B all main offices
C some main offices
D some agency offices
HOW TO ANSWER
BEFORE YOU ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS
Step 1 - Look at the text quickly (survey the text)
The heading tells you that the text is about service at post offices. Thesub-heading and the points listed below it show eight improvements to theservices.
Step 2 - Read the instructions and the question
The instructions for questions 1-3 tell you to write True, False or NotGiven on the answer sheet.
You are looking for specific information in the passage. The key words forquestion one are:
All offices will have more staff throughout the day.
The question is about more (additional) staff. You should also note thatthe question specifies all (not just some) offices and it also mentionsthroughout the day (that is, all day, not just part of the day).
Step 3- Find the answer
The best way to find the answer is to look quickly through the text for thekey words or their synonyms (words with similar meaning). Then, read the phraseor sentence that contains those words.
Looking for the word ’office’, in the first section of the text you findthat the changes are being introduced in ’our main offices’ and ’many of ouragency offices’. It seems that the changes do not refer to all offices.
The word ’staff’ is in the first improvement listed. It says there are’more staff at peak periods’. This means that there are only more staff at thebusiest times of the day and not all day. Therefore, the answer if FALSE.
Step 2 - Read the question
They key words are underlined:
There will be special service windows for cash transactions at all mainoffices. You need to find information about special service windows, namely:their functions ( are they used for cash transactions?) andswheresthey arelocated ( are they at all main offices?).
Step 3- Finzd the answer
’Special service windows’ are mentioned in the third point, but cashtransactions are not mentioned. There is no information in the text about whatkinds of transactions take place. Nor is there any information about whetherthese windows will be at all main post offices. Therefore, the correct answer isNOT GIVEN.
Step 2 - Read the question
The key words are:
It will be possible to obtain some items from machines.
You should search the text for the word ’machines’ or synonyms. Step 3 -Find the answer
Point 6 mentions ’cash machines’ and ’phonecard and stamp dispensers’. Soyou can obtain (get) cash (one item) from a machine, but what are ’dispensers’?The text tells you that they provide a faster service, and vending machines dothat, so it is reasonable to guess that a dispenser is a kind of machine. So,you can get some items from machines. Therefore, the correct answer is TRUE.
Note: If you don’t know the meaning of a word, you may be able to work outits meaning by looking at the words around it. This technique is called guessingfrom context. It is a very important skill and will be discussed in detail atthe end of Section 2.
Step 2 - Read the instructions and the question
Here you are instructed to write your answer in up to three words (i.e.one, two or three words).
The key words in the question 4 are:
Which change will ensure that the customers are treated more fairly?
All of the changes mentioned in the text are to ’help improve the standardof service’. Which one provides fairer service?
Stet 3 - Find the answer
Point one provides ’faster service’. Point two provides ’fairer service’.You don’t need to read further than this. The answer is ’single queuing system’(3 words).
Step 2 - Read the instructions and question
The instruction tell you to write a letter (A, B, C, or D), not a word.
The key words in the question are underlined: Which offices will stay openlonger?
The answer choices also help here. Factors such as the type of office (main or agency) and whether it is some or all offices are relevant.
Step 3 - Find the answer
We have already looked for the key word ’office’ (in question1) and foundthat the changes are being introduced in ’our main offices’ (sentence 1) and’many of our agency offices’. It seems that the changes do not refer to alloffices.
Looking quickly for stay open longer or synonyms, we find ’extended openinghours’ in the seventh improvement. However, it mentions only ’ selected mainoffices’. The answer is therefore C - ’some main offices’.
ANALYSIS AND PRACTICE
The three different kinds of questions used in the Demonstration are themost common question types in Section 1 of the Reading test.
True - False - Not Given (questions 1-3)
short answer of no more than three words ( question 4)
Multiple choice (question 5)
Following the three-step strategy:
survey the text
read the instructions and the question(s)
find the answers
is usually the fastest and surest way of doin the kinds of questions youwill find in Section 1. We will now look at each of these steps in moredetail.
STEP 1 - SURVEY THE TEXT
You can quickly obtain a lot of useful information about a text by justlooking at:
section headings or subheadings
any words in special print (bold, italics, CAPITALS or underlined)
any diagrams, tables or pictures
any unusual features of the text (e.g. layout or boxed text).
Surveying tells you about the topic or subject of the text. It may alsotell you something about how the text is organized (subheadings are especiallyuseful). Surveying may also tell you something about the writer’s purpose -whether the intention is to give instructions, to compare, to give information,and so on.