雅思阅读

广东艺术留学粤icp述说浅谈话语分析在雅思阅读中的作用

雅思阅读 2020-01-14 12:30:01
摘要:在雅思考试中, 雅思阅读话语分析 的能力也是剑桥考试官方要考查的阅读技能之一。而且根据国际语言学和测试学的发展趋势,可以预期话语分析将会成为雅思阅读命题最重要的设计

  在雅思考试中,雅思阅读话语分析的能力也是剑桥考试官方要考查的阅读技能之一。而且根据国际语言学和测试学的发展趋势,可以预期话语分析将会成为雅思阅读命题最重要的设计思想和模式。本文就雅思阅读中话语分析的功能作以下两个方面的简要论述。

  话语分析(discourse analysis)的概念最早由美国语言学家ZelligHarris于1952年提出,自20世纪60年代以来日益受到国际语言学界的高度重视。话语分析是指将一个具有语用和语义连贯的语篇看作一个意义单位,考虑到语境、文化、社会认知等方面的因素,对其内在的语法结构、逻辑联系、衔接手段进行破解和分析的语言研究方法。话语分析是英语阅读教学中的重要手段,它能够结合语境、篇章结构、体裁特征等因素引导学生以较快的速度理解和掌握英语文章的主要内容,获取文章的最大信息量。接下来为大家介绍"述说浅谈话语分析在雅思阅读中的作用"
浅谈话语分析在雅思阅读中的作用

  一.语篇中句际、段际之间的衔接和连贯分析及相关答题思路。衔接(cohesion)和连贯(coherence)是篇章语言学(textlinguistics)研究中的两个基本概念,也是话语分析的重要课题。语篇无论是口头表达还是书面表达,都必须衔接合理,符合逻辑,语义连贯。而语篇的连贯是依靠语篇衔接关系建立起来的。实现语篇连贯的衔接机制有显性(explicitcohesive device)和隐性(implicit cohesivedevice)之分,其中显性衔接是实现语篇连贯的主要手段,其具体方法包括:语法机制(grammatical device),词汇衔接(lexicalcohesion)和逻辑联系语(logicalconnector)。学术类雅思阅读文章的特点之一是结构严谨,逻辑性强,论述层次清晰,其语篇的连贯多由显性衔接机制来完成。具体的显性衔接手段包括:指称(reference),替代(substitution),省略(ellipsis),连接(conjunction),词汇衔接(lexicalcohesion),时间关联(time relator),地点关联(place relator),时和体(tense andaspect),平行结构(parallelconstruction)等。雅思阅读文章中语义衔接手段运用较多的是连接,指称,词汇衔接和平行结构。连接是指由连接成分(如逻辑关系词)把两个或多个句子,或者段落连接起来的现象。指称是指一个项目的意义要靠另一个项目来解释的现象。词汇衔接是指由词汇之间的语义关系(包括重现、同/近义、反义、上下义、整体部分义)以及同一语义场的词汇搭配所建立起来的衔接关系。平行结构是指相同类型的语句结构形成的衔接关系。雅思阅读考试直观上是主要考查对具体细节信息的把握,其实在命题设计上常常体现出篇章语言、功能语法等当代语言学研究的主要成果,语篇连贯的衔接机制就是雅思阅读一个主要的语言知识考查范畴,体现在文章的语义衔接位置通常都会设有考点。以下就词汇衔接,平行结构,以及指称与考点的联系各举一例进行说明。

  例一.词汇衔接(剑桥6/Test1/Reading Passage3)

  Life for the descendants of theThulepeople is still harsh.Nunavutis 1.9million square kilometers of rock and ice, and a handful of islands around theNorth Pole. It’s currently home to 2,500 people, all but a handful of themindigenous Inuit. Over the past 40 years, most have abandoned their nomadic waysand settled in the territory’s 28 isolated communities, but they still relyheavily on nature toprovide food and clothing.Provisions availableinlocal shopshave to be flown intoNunavuton one of the most costly air networks in the world,orbrought by supply shipduring the few ice-free weeks of summer. It would cost afamily around£7,000a year to replacemeat they obtainedthemselves through huntingwithimported meat. Economic opportunities are scarce, and for many peoplestatebenefitsare their only income.

  这是一道List of Headings题,要求在选项中找出能表达以上这段文字主题的段落标题。List ofHeadings题解题的原则就是找出段落的主题句,然后与标题选项一一对应,确定正确答案。但是在实际解题过程中,因为严格的时间限制,一般都不会去确定主题句,而是直接以最有可能成为主题句的段落的首、次、中、尾四个句子分别与标题选项一一对应来确定正确答案。但是在段落没有主题句的情况下,利用这个方法就无法确定正确选项。必须根据段落中的其它线索来答题。以上这个段落虽然没有主题句,但是在其行文中有非常明显的词汇衔接关系。文中的foodand clothing,provisions,supply,meat,benefits是同一语义场(生活的供给)的词汇同现,与选项iii的essentialsupplies对应。而与该组词紧密相连的provide,available,brought,obtained则是一组近义词,其引导的信息与选项iii的alternativesources对应。因此这段文字是通过同一语义场的词汇同现和近义词两种词汇衔接手段来实现句际之间的衔接,从而形成了意义上的连贯性,并构成了与标题选项iii相对应的段落主题。

  例二.平行结构(剑桥5/Test1/Reading Passage2)

  Prior to carrying out the experiment, Milgram explained his idea to a groupof 39 psychiatrists and asked them topredictthe average percentage of people inan ordinary population who would be willing to administer the highest shocklevel of 450 volts. The overwhelming consensus was that virtually all theteacher-subjects would refuse to obey the experimenter. The psychiatristsfeltthat‘most subjects would not go beyond 150 volts’ and they furtheranticipatedthatonly four per cent would go up to 300 volts. Furthermore, theythoughtthatonly a lunatic fringe of about one in 1,000 would give the highest shock of450 volts. What were the actual results? Well, over 60 per cent of theteacher-subjects continued to obey Milgram up to the 450-volt limit!

  Q22. Before the experiment took place the psychiatrists

  A.believedthat a shock of 150 volts was too dangerous.

  B. failed toagree onhow the teacher-subjects would respond toinstructions.

  C.underestimatedthe teacher-subjects’ willingness to comply withexperimental procedure.

  这是一道单选题,从命题的测试目的角度来看,是观点、态度分析类的题目。题干各个选项均含有表示观点、态度的提示词(believed /agree on/underestimated /thought)。与此题相对应的原文段落在语义衔接上是通过近义词和平行的及物性结构来实现,即:predict/ feltthat/ anticipated that/ thoughtthat。其形成的连贯语义(即普遍认为试验的主体不会使用高电压)为答案的引出作了重要的铺陈。原文接着以提问的方式给出了一个反面的结果,对应选项C的表示负向意义的观点态度提示词underestimated所引导的内容。与此相类似的平行结构的语义衔接在剑桥真题文章中多次出现,并且基本上都设有考点,反映了命题者对把握语义衔接和连贯的阅读能力的重视。

  例三.指称(剑桥5/Test1/Reading Passage2)

  One’s first inclination might be to argue that there must be some sort ofbuilt-in animal aggression instinct that was activated by the experiment, andthat Milgram’s teacher-subjects were just following a genetic need to dischargethis pent-up primal urge onto the pupil by administering the electrical shock. Amodern hard-core sociobiologist might even go so far as to claim that thisaggressive instinct evolved as anadvantageoustrait, having been ofsurvivalvalueto our ancestors in their struggle against the hardships of life on theplains and in the caves.

  Q24. Some people may believe that the teacher-subjects’ behavior. could beexplained as apositivesurvival mechanism.

  这是一道对错无判断题,以题干中的positive和survival mechanism作为定位词,分别对应原文的“this aggressiveinstinct evolved as an advantageous trait, having been of survivalvalue”这一句中的advantageous和survivalvalue,因此可以判定题干的核心意思和原文的对应信息是同义转述。但是我们还需要确定题干中的teacher-subjects’behavior和原文的对比信息this aggressive instinct在语义上是否对等。而要确定这一点,就必须要理解在原文中“thisaggressive instinct”正是借助指称的衔接手段指代上文中的关于“teacher-subjects’behavior”的具体描述,即:“teacher-subjects were just following a genetic need todischarge this pent-up primal urge onto the pupil by administering theelectrical shock”。据此才可以判定题干的意思与原文完全一致,答案应为TRUE。

  另外,在语言测试领域,通过雅思阅读话语分析把握文章中出现的词汇衔接手段、信息重心及文章层次结构对于阅读答题起着非常关键的作用。


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原文地址:广东艺术留学粤icp述说浅谈话语分析在雅思阅读中的作用发布于2020-01-14
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